The brain is the most complex organ in the human body where there is a network of billions of neurons or nerve cells that function to carry out communication and integration. The brain is apart of the central nervous system along with the spinal cord all the control center of the body. These three organs get and decipher stimuli and send impulses to organs, for example, if someone puts their hand on a hot stove the spinal cord and then the brain receives nerve fibres that send impulses to their hand to move. The brain receives all information and uses it to control the human actions and reactions. The brain is located in the skull where it is protected from bumps by the 28 bones in the skull and divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The brain is composed of 3 main structural divisions: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain. The cerebrum is the upper part of the brain that is divided into four different lobes; it controls conscious mental processes. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called gray matter while the inner portion is the white matter. These four different lobes are the frontal lobe which controls thinking, judgment making, conscious emotions and etc., the parietal lobe which controls body orientation and attention, the temporal lobe which concerns the hearing, language and memory, and lastly the occipital lobe which commits to the visual processing. Then there’s the cerebellum that is located in the back of the brain between the brainstem and back of the cerebrum controlling muscles and maintaining bodily equilibrium. The pons is apart of the forebrain where it’s in front of the cerebrum and controls what the cerebrum and cerebellum by getting the impulses from the two divisions and sending them to the spinal cord. The brainstem is responsible for breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. All in all, the brain is made up of billions of neurons or nerve cells that literally functions your body. Here is a picture of an healthy human brain:An very common disease that attacks the human brain is Alzheimer’s disease where it progressively destroys the memory and other mental functions. There are currently more than 3 million US cases of Alzheimer’s disease that mainly attack seniors or people that are at least approximately 60 years old. Within the brain, the cells and their connections began to degenerate and die overtime that result into memory loss and confusion. Alzheimer is a type of dementia that causes issues with behavior, memory, and thinking that often damages overtime ultimately, making daily tasks extremely difficult for humans. The disease causes an cognitive and behavioral impairment that blocks develop in the hippocampus that helps encode memories and areas in the cerebral cortex which helps problem thinking and decision making. Alzheimer’s disease allows for individuals to physically look normal, but mentally be impaired. Alzheimer’s disease at first causes memory loss which is moderate however, as it becomes worse, the individual can not even respond to their environment. As an individual that suffers with Alzheimer’s disease grows old in age their dementia symptoms worsen proportionally. The brain contains of one hundred billion neurons all having a responsibility regarding communication functions. These nerve cells gets supplies, help create energy, and get clear of waste. The cells also keeps data and interact with other cells. However, the Alzheimer’s disease does not allow these cells to do its job completely leading to mutilation within the cells and brain that results in the cells in dying out annulled changes in the brain. They’re plaques and tangles that are two abnormal structures that are mainly to blame for the mutilating and killing of nerve cells. Plaques are abnormal clusters of protein fragments, build up between nerve cells. Whereas, tangles contain of dead and dying nerve cells which are made up of twisted strands of another protein. As the disease progress with age, the plaque and tangles spread as well through the cortex blocking communication among neurons.Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S that as of right now has no cure, but they’re treatments that could temporarily reduce symptoms. Scientists are not fully aware of what causes the plaques and tangles to emerge and spread throughout the brain which damages the neurons. It’s also a mystery as to why the disease attacks older adults, however, it’s clear that as the brain ages it causes changes within the brain such as inflammation, shrinking of areas of the brain, and etc. Doctors use things such as brain scans, conduct tests of memory, problem solving, and etc in order to diagnose a patient with the disease and it’s also possible to diagnose an individual with Alzheimer’s disease after they have died.There are many symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease that are treatable, however, the disease itself is incurable. According to Healthline.com, Signs of mild Alzheimer’s disease include: memory loss, uncertainty about the location of familiar areas, taking longer to achieve normal daily tasks, compromised judgment often leading to bad decisions, loss of spontaneity and sense of initiative, mood and personality changes; increased anxiety. According to Healthline.com, signs of moderate Alzheimer’s disease include: Increasing memory loss and confusion, shortened attention span, problems recognizing people, difficulty with language and speaking; problems with reading, writing, working, difficulty organizing thoughts and thinking logically, inability to learn new things or to cope with new or unexpected situations, restlessness, agitation, anxiety, tearfulness, wandering, ticks, hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness or paranoia, irritability, and loss of impulse control. Finally, signs of severe Alzheimer’s disease include of all of moderate and weight loss, seizures, skin infections, difficulty swallowing, groaning, moaning, or grunting, increased sleeping, and lack of bladder and bowel control. However, the individual that suffers from severe AD becomes completely unable to function independently and cannot communicate with other effectively. Death is of course also a result of Alzheimer’s disease.The treatments that are usually given are to treat the many symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Psychotropic medications that are given include antidepressants, anxiolytics, antiparkinsonian agents, beta-blockers, antiepileptic drugs, and neuroleptics which all are used to treat symptoms such as depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, sleep disorders and etc. Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are used to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer whereas, Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer. These drugs ultimately try to regulate how neurons communicate with one another helping with behavioral difficulties. They’re drugs that help some people, but not all; it may not be effective to all. Physical activities and exercise won’t of course promise an individual a life without Alzheimer’s disease, but it is suggested that healthy lifestyles reduces the probability of developing the disease. An individual that has an first degree relative that suffered from AD has a higher risk of developing it. Also, women have a higher chance is developing Alzheimer’s disease compared to men, because of the fact that they scientifically live longer.In conclusion, the brain is one of the largest organs in the body that helps live our everyday life such as remembering to do our work, doing laundry or even just sitting down. Our creativity and passion are all controlled by the brain, which is why scientists work hard to find an cure for Alzheimer’s disease because it deteriorates these amazing things that make an human being.
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