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Socialism the differences between the vary interpretations of

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Socialism
is a political ideology created in Europe in the 19th
century, emerging as a response to the social and economic conditions
brought by the growth of the industrial capitalism, due to the
industrial revolution that was taking place in Europe and that
changed the life of millions.

The
term “socialist” was first used in the London
Co-operative Magazine
in 1827, which discussed that the issue whether the capital should be
owned individually or by the community and by the 1840s the term
“socialism” was known in most of the industrialized countries,
like Britain, France or Belgium.

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As
all the political ideologies, it is not easy to define what socialism
is without minimizing the differences between the vary
interpretations of it like Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism, Social
Democracy etc., but in all of its different forms socialism has
certain fundamental characteristics that will be discuss and analyze
in this essay. They key principles of socialism can be identified in
this five concepts which are:
Community,
Cooperation,
Equality,
Social
class and
Common
ownership
(Political
ideologies).

COMMUNITY

As
the English poet John Dunne said “no man is an Island entire of
itself”, Socialism
believes that human as social creatures are able to overcome social
and economic problems through the power of the community rather than
individual efforts.

Human
nature can also change and it is not fixed but it is determinate by
the society where we live, which is the place where people learn
skills and human behaviors, meaning that those are not natural but
instead are conditions made by the society itself where the
individual lives. Society makes people selfish and aggressive because
they live in a capitalistic system, not because of their human
nature, forcing them to seek just the profit. Capitalism concentrates
the wealth of the society in the hands of few individuals leaving the
majority in poverty, such concept is unacceptable by Socialism.

The
belief that human beings are self-sufficient is false for socialists
and they believe that it is impossible to make clear distinctions of
“individual” and “society” because “Individuals
can be just identified just through the social groups to which they
are part of”
Heywood A page 108.

Socialists
are also concern on what individuals can accomplish and what they can
be, which has led to the ideas of utopian visions of society, where
group of people can achieve emancipation and equality as members of
that community.

COOPERATION

As
we said before, socialist believe in cooperation rather than
competition because unable people to create bonds of sympathy and
trust which is what they believe is a natural instinct, competition
is what the capitalist system brings in the society and what makes
people selfish and self-interested.

Socialism
argues that human beings can be inspire to do their best not just
through materialistic rewards but also by moral values that will help
their community to grow and creates in them a sense of responsibility
towards others. Welfare supports for the most vulnerable individuals
in society is what the socialists seek in order to guarantee to all a
fair and equal treatment.

EQUALITY

Equality
is without questions the defining goal for Socialism, regarding it as
a fundamental value to promote equality of outcome in a society which
is what makes socialists different compare other political ideologies
like Conservatism or Liberalism.

As
the book “Political Ideologies: an introduction” by Andrew
Heywood says, there are three arguments in favor of it which are
social equality stands for fairness, builds cooperation and holds
“that
need-satisfaction in the basis for human fulfilment and
self-realization”(Heywood
A. page 112).

Social
equality stands for fairness means that socialists believe that the
inequality between people is not created by the nature but by the
society itself, where people receive unequal treatments. That
does not mean that they believe that all people are the same, people
have different skills and competences but Socialists agree that they
must be treated in the same way without any distinctions.

Equality
builds cooperation, meaning that if people have the same outcome in
society they will be more incline to work together to reach their
common goals in the community to have the same advantages rather than
competing against each other.

Without
equality socialists argue that in the society there would be
conflicts between will lead society to a conflict between different
social classes like it did happen in the French Revolution
(1789-1799) and in Russia in 1917, where people fought against the
privileges that the few had.

All
individuals in a community have basic needs, like food and so on,
making them fundamental, meaning for socialists that those are
essential for guarantee freedom and equality to the community.

Socialist
believe that the concepts of freedom and equality can coexist, which
is different from what other political ideologies beliefs, like
liberalism.

SOCIAL
CLASS

Social
class indicates groups of people who do share similar ideas due to
their similar social and economic status.

Socialists
believe that throughout history people were more incline to associate
themselves with others who had their common interest, meaning that
social classes can cause and bring changes in society and are a key
factor in human history.

Also
social class has been define more specifically as the will of the
working class, which will lead socialism to success because they are
the only class who can and will implement it.

Different
ideas in the Socialism thought see classes has something that should
be eliminate by society (like Karl Marx said) or that they will be
dramatically reduced.

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