Menu

Natural therapeutic applications for centuries. Such products are

0 Comment

Natural
Bioactive compounds have been used for their therapeutic applications for
centuries. Such products are usually secondary metabolites extracted from animal,
plants or their symbiotically associated microbes. Use of these natural
products has gained popularity due to their added advantage over chemical
synthetic drugs that have many side effects (Strobel and Daisy, 2003). Moreover,
owing to a rise in Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA), Penicillin resistant Streptococcus
pneumonia (PRSP), Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriace and Vancomycin
resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE)
incidences in last two decades, a dire need for novel drugs has raised
(Menichetti, 2005, Geisinger and
Isberg, 2017). Besides, production of bioactive compounds by the plant,
are dependent on parameters like specific developmental stage, nutritional
availability, stress and environmental conditions (Chandra et al., 2012; Dudeja
and Giri, 2014). Attributed to these limitations, exploring microorganism
provides a prospect of easily renewable, inexhaustible and cost effective
source for bioactive compounds. Some examples of natural products success stories
in pharmaceutical industry are vinblastine, taxol, camptothecin,
podophyllotoxin, topotecan and vincristine (Cragg and Newman, 2004).

Endosymbiotic
group of microorganisms that colonize in intra and/or intercellular locations
to the plants, without causing any pathogenicity are known as endophytes
(Pimental et al., 2011). The endophytic fungus mainly belongs to three taxa
Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota (Carvalho et al. 2012). A number of
studies have described bioactive metabolites derived from endophytes, which
have wide range of application in pharmaceutical, agriculture, food and
cosmetics industries (Strobel and Daisy,
2003; Zhang et al., 2012; Gouda et al.,
2016).  These bioactive compounds exhibit various
attributes including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-cancerous properties.
The endophyte produced secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids,
phenolics, tannins, steroids, quinones, chinones, benzopyranones, xanthones,
terpinoids and teralones, which are bioactive compounds with medicinal
properties (Schulz et al.,
2002; Strobel and Daisy,
2003). Furthermore, there
have been reports that sometimes endophytes produce same bioactive metabolite
as the host plant (Chandra, 2012).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Another
rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites is marine microbes. These
metabolites range from antibiotics, novel anti-inflammatory agents and
anticancer agents (Boopathy and Kathirsean, 2010). Compounds range from various
metabolites such as terpenoids, polyethers, macrolides, alkaloids, nucleosides
and peptides (Dhinakaran et al. 2012).  

This
review aims to provide an insight to the various secondary metabolites derived
from microorganisms that can be a source to novel bioactive compounds for
pharmaceutical use.

Endophyte bioactive compound with
antimicrobial properties

A
number of studies have described bioactive metabolites derived from endophytes,
which have wide range of application in pharmaceutical, agriculture, food and
cosmetics industries (Strobel and Daisy,
2003; Zhang et al., 2012; Gouda et al.,
2016).  These bioactive compounds exhibit various
attributes including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-cancerous properties.
The endophyte produced secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids,
phenolics, tannins, steroids, quinones, chinones, benzopyranones, xanthones,
terpinoids and teralones, which are bioactive compounds with medicinal
properties (Schulz et al.,
2002; Strobel and Daisy,
2003). List of a wide variety
of endophytic compounds with bioactive properties from various origins has been
described in Table 1.    

x

Hi!
I'm Alex!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out