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ITECH 2201 Cloud Computing

School of Science,
Information Technology & Engineering

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Workbook
for Week 8

Please note: All the efforts were taken to ensure the given web links
are accessible. However, if they are broken – please use any appropriate
video/article and refer them in your answer

Part A                                                                                                                                           (3
Marks)

      Exercise
1: Green Computing(0.5 Marks)

      The questions in this exercise can be
answered by doing internet search and/or from the YouTube videos. Answer to
each question should be one paragraph in your own words.

      Ques.What
is Greenhouse effect?

      Ans.
Greenhouse effect is the natural phenomenon that ensures the warmness on
the earth. When solar rays fall on the earth some of the rays(radiations) are
absorbed by land and oceans whereas remaining heat is reflected back to the
space but some of the heat is trapped by the greenhouse gases present in the
atmosphere that gives warmness to the earth. But if the amount of greenhouse
gases increases severely it causes high temperature on the earth which will
cause survival of life forms on the earth difficult.

     

      Ques.We are legally, ethically, and
socially required to green our IT products, applications, services, and
practices – is this statement true? Why?

      Ans.
Yes,
we are legally, ethically, and socially required to green our IT products,
applications, services, and practices because our It products such as PC
generates lots of Carbon dioxide gas which is major greenhouse gas. Due to
computer and It infrastructure which requires a lot of consumption of
electricity there is a heavy burden on the electric grids which lead to
emission of carbon dioxide. This will lead climate change and will have severe
environmental consequences such as our glaciers are melting with very high
speed and it will pose harm to life on the earth.

 

      Ques.What
is Green IT and what are the benefits of greening IT?

      Ans.
Green
IT or Green computing can be defined as the practices of environmentally sustainable
computing. The main aim of the Green IT is to minimise the harms that are
caused by the IT operations to the environment.

    
Benefits of greening IT

·        
To ensure environment sustainability.

·        
Effective utilization of the resources in
an environment friendly way.

·        
Due to effective use of resources the cost
will reduce.

·        
Power consumption will also reduce.

 

 

 

    Exercise
2: Environmental Sustainability (0.5 Marks)

      Read the article in the below link and
answer the questions that follow:

      http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/it/2010/02/mit2010020004.html

 

      Ques.According
to the article how do you build a greener environment?

      Ans.
According to the article four complementary paths can be used to build greener
environment which are as follows:

·        
Green
use:
As we know that most of the It infrastructure such as data centres, computers
and other information systems consume a lot of electricity which causes burden
on electric grid ultimately leads to emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
So, the energy consumptions of these systems must be reduced and use them in
environment friendly manner.

·        
Green
Disposal: Most of the outdated computers and
other electronic equipments are discarded and disposed off due to which it
causes environment pollution mainly soil and water pollution. So, by
refurbishing and reusing old computer and recycling of electronic equipment and
unwanted computers will help.

·        
Green
Design:
To design computers, data centres, other components which are energy efficient
as well as environment friendly.

·        
Green
manufacturing: To manufacture computers, other IT components in
such a way so that it will have minimal or no impact on environment.

 

       Ques.Summarize the article in 150 words

      Ans.
Although IT has great contribution in several fields of human endeavour but
it is also posing harm to environment which are not realised by most of the IT
professionals. These impacts are due to usage of more energy that causes
emission of large amount carbon dioxide, or it can be due to disposal of
various computer equipments which are contaminating environment and hence,
there is need for make IT greener for which four paths can be taken green use,
green disposal, green design and green manufacturing. Besides this it is also
important to educate the students and IT professionals regarding the Green IT
and its prospects as most of them are not familiar with it. IT professionals, educators,
researchers and users can really make the difference to create a sustainable
environment which will save and benefit the current as well as future
generation from environmental consequences.

 

Exercise
3: Environmentally Sound Practices(1 Mark)

The questions in this exercise can be
answered by doing internet search.

Ques.Briefly explain the following terms –
a paragraph for each term:

§  Power usage
effectiveness (PUE) and its reciprocal

 Ans.  To find out the energy efficiency of the data
centre the metric which is being used is known as Power usage effectiveness. To
determine it the total amount of power that is entered in a data centre is
divided by the power used within the data centre to run its computer
infrastructure. The reciprocal of the PUE is called DCEI i.e. Data centre
infrastructure efficiency and as this approaches 100% it improves. Whereas an
ideal PUE is 1.0.

 

§  Data centre efficiency
(DCE)

Ans.
It is also a metric to measure the power
efficiency of a data centre.

DCE= IT Equipment Power/Data centre Power.
In this IT equipment power is the equipment which is required to manage,
process, store, or route data within the raise floor space.

§  Data centre
infrastructure efficiency (DCiE)

Ans.
It is also a metric to measure efficiency
of a data centre. It is reciprocal of the PUE and as it approaches to the 100%
it improves. This metric was developed by Green grid.

So,
DCiE=(1/PUE)*100.

Ques.List 5 universities which offer Green computing
course. You should name the university, the     course name and the brief description about
the course.

    
Ans.  Following are the
universities which are offering Green computing course:

·        
Karlstad
University: This University offers the course with the name Green
computing which treats the concept of green IT, environmental perspectives on
IT use and standards and certifications related to sustainable IT products.

·        
Athabasca
University: This University provide Green computing course with
the name GreenICT. The delivery mode for this course is grouped study online
and it is a graduate level course with no prerequisites. This course will
provide an understanding of the role of ICTs and their impact on global carbon
footprint.

·        
University
of Arizona: This University provide the Green computing course and
course code is CSC 447. This course covers the fundamental principles of energy
management faced by hardware, data centres, and operating systems.

·        
Acadia
University: The course being offered is Green computing and IT. The course will provide an introduction to the issues of
how energy used by information and communications technology is becoming a
major concern in the world and how it can be reduced. The course will also
cover the growing demand by government and businesses for computer hardware,
software and methods that can be used to monitor and control domestic and
industrial energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other impacts on the
earth’s environment.

·        
Australian
National University: This University is offering green
computing course under the ICT sustainability. This course is about  how to
assess, and reduce, the carbon footprint and materials used with computers and
telecommunications. Strategies can reduce the environmental impact of computers
and make business more energy efficient.

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise
4: Major Cloud APIs (1 Mark)

      The
following companies are the major cloud service provider: Amazon, GoGrid,
Google, and Microsoft.

      Ques.List
and briefly describe (3 lines for each company) the Cloud APIs provided by the
above major vendors.                                            

Ans.  Amazon: RESTful Amazon
Drive API is cloud API provided by the Amazon that enables the users to access
photos, videos and documents which they have stored in Amazon Drive. It
provides the organization the facility to interact with millions of Amazon
Drive customers. It is built on AWS platform which is highly reliable and
scalable.

GoGrid:
Its
API is REST-like query interface. GoGrid
method calls are made over the internet by sending HTTPS GET or POST requests
to the GoGrid API REST Server. Nearly any computer language can be used to
communicate over HTTPS with the REST server.

Google:
There
are many different cloud APIs provided by Google. Some of them are Google Cloud
Billing API which is used such as Google cloud Billing API which allows
developers to manage billing for their Google cloud platform programmatically.
Another API is Google cloud container builder which is used to build container
image in the cloud. Google cloud IoT API which is used to register and manage
IoT devices that connect to the Google cloud platform.

Microsoft:
Azure
Management API that provides REST API for performing operations on selected
entities,

such as users, groups etc.
All API operations are performed over SSL and mutually authenticated using
X.509 v3 certificates.

    (https://wiki.gogrid.com/index.php/API:API)

    (https://developers.google.com/apis-explorer/#search/cloud/)

 

Part B                                                                                                                                           (3
Marks)

     

      Exercise
1: Greening IT Standards and Regulations(0.5 Marks)

To
design green computers and other IT hardware – the following standards and
regulations are mainly used EPEAT (www.epeat.net), the Energy Star 4.0
standard, and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (https://www.gov.uk/guidance/rohs-compliance-and-guidance).
Use the link provide with some internet search – summarize each standards and
regulations in 150 words. 

      Ans.
EPEAT
is a free and trusted source which provides environmental products ratings. It is
program of the Green Electronics council which is spread across 43 countries
worldwide. In this system manufacturers make registration of their electronic
devices on the basis of certain criteria which are bifurcated into two
categories namely required criteria means which are mandatory and other one is
optional criteria that address product lifecycle. Three types of ratings can be
provided to these products bronze rating means product is meeting all the
required criteria, silver rating means product is meeting all the required
criteria and besides this 50% of optional criteria and last is gold rating
means product is meeting all the required criteria and besides this 75% of optional
criteria. The products complying with the criteria are stored in the database
of the EPEAT and hence, purchase can take a look on those products before
buying them.

 

     

           RoHS: All the
manufacturers, authorized representatives, importers and distributors of
electronic and electrical equipment with RoHS must comply with The RoHS in
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (2011/65/EU) whose aim is to
prevent hazardous substances from entering the production process and thereby
keep them out of the waste stream. In case manufacturers, authorized
representatives, importers and distributors does not comply with the mentioned
directive for any reason than they have to fulfil certain requirements which
are as follows:

·        
Notifying market surveillance authorities.

·        
Inform supply chain.

·        
Taking remedial actions.

Energy
Star 4.0 Standard: Energy star qualified products helps to
save the money and to reduce the greenhouse gas emission and hence, can provide
positive contribution to save our environment. These products have to meet
strict energy efficiency guidelines. Energy star 4.0 is the standard that has
been initiated after July 20, 2007. Unlike the previous 3.0 standard there will
be more strict guidelines that must be fulfilled by the products and no
grandfathering of current products. The main focus which are being addressed in
this are:

·        
Power supply efficiency.

·        
Off-mode, sleep mode and idle mode
wattages.

           (http://sustainability.tufts.edu/wp-content/uploads/EnergyStar_Computers.pdf)

 

      Exercise
2: Green cloud computing (0.5 Marks)

      Xiong, N.; Han, W.; Vandenberg, A,
“Green cloud computing schemes based on networks: a survey,” Communications,
IET, vol.6, no.18, pp.3294,3300, Dec. 18 2012

Most
part of power consumption in data centres comes from computation processing,
disk storage, network and cooling systems. Nowadays, there are new technologies
and methods proposed to reduce energy cost in data centres. From the above
paper summarize(in 300 words) the recent work done in these fields.

Ans.
Following are the new technologies and proposed method to reduce energy cost in
data centres that has been described in the above mentioned paper:

·        
Computation processing: SiO2
gate oxide is replaced by physically thicker layer of hafnium based oxide due
to which the gate tunnelling currents have been reduced appreciably as well as
performance of the transistor can also be maintained.

    
Use of MCD i.e. multiple clock domain processor instead of the
traditional singly clocked globally synchronous system can lower energy
consumption.

·        
Disk Storage: By replacing
larger disk drive by smaller one can reduce the energy consumption. Use of
solid state drivers instead of large hard disks as solid state drives stores
data in flash drives or DRAM can help to reduce carbon footprint and lower
energy consumption as done by fusion-io.

 

·        
Cooling Systems: These systems
are used by data centres to remove heat by force circulation of large amount of
chilled air and it consumes nearly half of the electricity energy of the data
centres. Use of chilled liquid cooling system in highest mainframes and densely
packed servers by scientists may reduce this consumption in future. Designing micro
channel heat sinks so that thermal resistance between transistor and fluid is
reduced to the extent so that even cooling water temperatures between 60 to 70
degree Celsius ensure no heating of the microprocessors. Using such water
cooling systems will reduce energy consumption by cooling to 50%.

 

·        
Network: Use of innovative
criteria and technologies, which are able to dynamically adapt network
capacities and resources to current traffic loads and requirements to save
energy are being regarded by the telecoms, network equipments manufacturers and
network research community. It is also proposed that the existing distributed
systems should be able to exploit the variation in electricity prices to make
significant gains.

 

Exercise3: Cloud API Functionalities (2
Marks)

      Ques.List the functionalities that can be
achieved by using the APIs mentioned in the following link:

      https://code.google.com/p/sainsburys-nectar-api/

    
Ans. The API mentioned in the
above link is Sainsbury-nectar-api which is a simple java api that is used to
connect with the nectar account and retrieval of the details of the account.
Account details can be retrieved using nectar.getAccount() function. After the
authentication available information about the offers can also be retrieved as
well as offer can also be opted.

     

   
 Ques.What API is used in the
following link and how it is used?   

      https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-novaclient

    
Ans. The API mentioned in the
above link is OpenStack Nova API. One is command line API(nova) and Python
API(novaclient module).

      Command
line API: When it opens to interact with Openstack cloud user has to provide
username and password by providing – -os-username and  – -os-password parameters.

 

Openstack
is an open source collaborative software project which meets many of the cloud
needs. Below links gives vast information about Openstack.

§  https://support.rc.nectar.org.au/docs/openstack

§  http://docs.openstack.org/api/quick-start/content/

      Ques. Write a report (1 page) about the Openstack
features and functionalities.

      Ans. OpenStack is cloud
operating system. In a datacentres it controls large pools of compute, storage
and networking resources.The main features of the OpenStack are it leverages
commodity hardware which ensure no lock in, it provides node agnostic,
unlimited storage which is achieved through large and flat namespace,
multidimensional scalability so that storage can be scalable, easily add
capacity, no centralized database which ensure no bottleneck and ensure high
performance, several built in management utilities are also present in it for
account management and container management, drive auditing which ensures
detection of drive failure to pre-empt data corruption, expiring object feature
in which a user can set expiration date of the object, it enables direct object
access, real time visibility to client requests so as to ensure that it can
know what the client is requesting, support for S3 API and hence can utilize
tools which are developed for S3 API, restrict containers per account.  The main functionalities in OpenStack can be
achieved through its different modules which are as follows:

·        
Compute (Nova): This module is written in
python and creates an abstraction layer to achieve virtualization of various
commodity server resources which can be CPU, memory etc.

·        
Networking (Neutron): This module provides
the capability for the management of local area network with capabilities for
VLAN, DHCP and IPv6.

·        
Identity Management (Keystone): To manage
the directory of users as well the list of services of OpenStack that can be
accessed by those users.

·        
Object Storage (swift): This module
ensures data replication and distribution of data across all the devices that
are present in its pool.

·        
Block Storage (Cinder): It is used to
manage block level storage.

·        
Image Service (Glance): It provides
support for Virtual machine images and it has also capability for snapshots and
backups.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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