often called the Diabetic Capital of the world stands first in the world
ranking of countries with the highest number of diabetes patients. With over 70
million diabetes cases, India has a serious necessity to focus more on this
Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of common
metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes
mellitus is a metabolic and endocrinological disease characterized by
hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance and/or defective insulin
secretion1.Cardiovascular disease has been
reported to be the most important cause for sudden morbidity and mortality in
(CP) is a copper-containing alpha-2-glycoprotein with a molecular weight of
approximately 132 kDa. Ceruloplasmin has diverse functions. It is essential for
iron homeostasis, is involved in angiogenesis and acts as a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant
2.The known functions of ceruloplasmin include copper transportation, iron
metabolism, antioxidant defense, and involvement in angiogenesis and
coagulation. It has been shown that ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation of
iron(II) to iron(III), with a catalytic cycle that involves four of the six
atoms of copper associated with ceruloplasmin, and uses dioxygen as an electron
acceptor without the mediation of an incompletely reduced reactive oxygen
species, such as a superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide3. It has been establishedthat serum
ceruloplasmin level increases in subjects withcardiovascular disorders, like
atherosclerosis, as a response to inflammatory process4. Reactive oxygen
species disrupt copper binding to ceruloplasmin, thereby impairing its normal
protective function as liberated copper may generate free radicals and oxidize LDL
making it more atherogenic.
Proinflammatorycytokines generated in adipose
tissue can increase hepatic synthesis of Inflammation Sensitive Plasma
proteins. These proteins are recognized as cardiovascular disease risk factors
and some of them like haptoglobin, fibrinogen, ?1-antitrypsin, and Cp
were used in clinical practice to measure the degree of inflammation5.
Various studies had evaluated the association
between serum ceruloplasmin concentration and insulin resistance. Also studies
had evaluated the complexity of relation between serum ceruloplasmin andobesity.
But only few studies have compared serum ceruloplasmin in relation to BMI and cardiovascular
risk factors like lipid profile in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.
This study aims to predict the risk of
developing cardiovascular diseases among type 2 diabetes patients having high
BMI by correlating the serum ceruloplasmin levels with lipid profile.
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