How is animal training used? (Including examples of species)Animal training is all about teaching animals to respond in a particular way to responses or conditions including stimulus. You can get these results by using training, the aims for training can be any of the following; companionship, detection, protection, and entertainment. The type of training an animal receives is completely dependant on the training method used. For example, a seeing eye dog will not be the same as a sniffer dog.Dogs – Simple obedience training for dogs include; leash walking, ability to give attention, house training (toilet training), nonaggression (soft-mouthing) and the ability to socialise with people and other conspecifics. However, dogs can also be trained for several other activities for example, sports (hunting, track) service (blind assistance, deaf assistance, military) or even working (farm/agriculture, guarding). The use of positive reinforcement in dogs can include primary reinforcers e.g. food, social reinforcers such as vocal e.g. “good boy” and even tactile e.g. stroking/patting. Another example could be positive punishment e.g. pulling on the lead or spanking, it may also be a reverse of the previous social reinforcer e.g. “bad boy” or even whistle/dog whistles, clickers are also an option a training method in itself developed by (Karen Pryor) in her book (Pryor, don’t shoot the dog, 1999)Horses – The main reason for training horses is to aid in their socialisation with humans, this means teaching the animal to behave in a way that is safe for humans and horse to cooperate safely through handling and riding. As Horses are a prey species, a lot of effort has to be put in to train horses, this is due to the anti-predation instinct of a horses fight or flight response to the presence of handling, being in a confined space and having a predator species (the trainer) on their back. Unlike dog’s horses do not respond as consistently to positive reinforcement rewards but instead seem better suited to operant conditioning. Methods such as the release of pressure given as a reward for the correct behaviour (negative reinforcement). The punishment of horses are very limited in their effectiveness, this is because if a punishment isn’t given in a matter of seconds then the horse will more than likely not associate the punishment with the unwanted behaviour.Birds – Common training for domesticated birds include; perching, the removal of aggressive behaviour, prevention of feather-picking, controlling the overuse of vocalisations, socialising with humans and other pets including strangers. Some birds of prey are even trained to hunt in a sport known as falconry or hawking a sport that is over 1,200 years old.Chickens – Chicken training is achieved through operant conditioning by which food and a clicker serve as the reinforcements, trained chickens are able to choose between shapes e.g. triangle equals good and square equals bad. It is also known to be used a s a form of entertainment for example, for a fee you can play noughts and crosses with a chicken.Zoological parks – Animals that are in the eye of the public (captivity) can be trained for different reasons whether that’s educational, entertainment, management or husbandry behaviours. For educational behaviours, a species may elicit species typical vocalisations through the addition of a stimulus. Entertainment may involve various forms of a conspecifics display behaviours to show the animal (educate). Perhaps the most useful form of captive training, management of an animal’s behaviours can aid in the transport of an animal e.g. crate/one pen to another, the entering of an enclosure and even the following of a trainer (food source etc.). Husbandry is also an important area because it directly affects the veterinary care, in the sense that an animal can become desensitised to physical procedures such as; Cleaning, clipping of nails, Stepping onto a scale (weight) and even the collection of sample (urine, faecal matter etc.) This training is important because it can minimalize the use of anesthetisation or physical restraint, lessening the occurrence of these will dramatically lower the stress on the animal.Marine mammal parks – Similarly In marine mammal parks I animals are usually trained for the purpose of entertainment these animals include bottlenose dolphins, killer whales/Orcas, belugas, sea lions etc. During a public display in a captive environment, the audience’s attention is focused on the conspecific, rather than the animal trainer; this would mean that discriminate if a stimulus is usually gestural visual communication. In evasive dog, whistles are commonly used as connections, and then a positive reinforcer the primary being food/appropriate supplement or even tactile rub downs/patting with the whales it’s not common to use vocal. However, species such as mustelids and pinnipeds sea lions, seals, walruses, and otters From an auditory perspective can actually here in our frequency Examples of this can be seen When a trainer Says phrases like “good job” or “good grief” The key word being good is a reinforcer that is a substitute for food Or tactile rewards such as, petting. The substitute is done to reward a specific behaviour without the use of constant feeding as the praise for achieving the desirable Behavioural outcome. How is the science applied? The behavioural approach -through science a trainer can administer one out of four potential outcomes to achieve a specific behaviour. These four include:• Positive reinforcement – This is when a conspecifics behaviour is directly followed by a stimulus that will adversely increase the frequency of the targeted behaviour over time. (Miltenberger, 2015)• Negative reinforcement – This is when a conspecifics behaviour is directly followed by the absence of an aversive stimulus. This, in turn, causes the frequency of the targeted behaviour to increase over time. (Miltenberger, 2015)• Positive punishment – This happens when an animals’ behaviour is followed by the adding of an aversive stimulus. This then causes a decrease in the occurrence of the targeted behaviour with the hopes that the unwanted behaviour will eventually become extinct. (Miltenberger, 2015)• Negative punishment – This is when a conspecifics’ behaviour is directly followed by the absence of a stimulus. This then causes the behaviour to decrease in frequency over time. Again, with the purpose of it becoming extinct.Behavioural analysts agree that if the desired outcome is to increase the occurrence of a behaviour, then positive reinforcement is recommended. (Pryor, 1999) Whereas, for decreasing the less desirable behaviour negative punishment is recommended. However, it is important to note that if an animal is going to receive punishment. The animal must also be able to have positive reinforcement to find a behavioural alternative. (Miltenberger, 2015).Establishing new behaviour –
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